The Structure and Working Principle of Laser Engraving Machine

Mar 10, 2022

1. The structure of the laser engraving machine

The structure of the laser and engraving machine includes a laser and a gas nozzle on its output optical path. The gas nozzle has a window at one end and a nozzle coaxial to the optical path of the laser at the other end. An air pipe is connected to the side of the gas nozzle, and the air pipe of the laser engraving machine is connected to an air or oxygen source, and the pressure of the air or oxygen source is 0.1 to 0.3 MPa. The inner wall of the spout is cylindrical, with a diameter of 1.2 to 3 mm and a length of 1 to 8 mm. The oxygen in the oxygen source accounts for 60% of its total volume, and a reflector is placed on the optical path between the laser and the gas nozzle. The laser engraving machine can improve the efficiency of engraving, make the surface of the engraved place smooth and round, quickly reduce the temperature of the non-metallic material, and reduce the deformation and internal stress of the engraved object. It can be widely used in the field of fine carving of various non-metallic materials.

2. The working principle of laser engraving machine

(1) Dot matrix engraving: Dot matrix engraving resembles high-definition dot matrix printing. The laser head swings left and right to engrave a line consisting of a series of dots at a time, at the same time the laser head moves up and down to engrave multiple lines, and finally constitutes a full-page image or text. The scanned graphics, text and vectorized graphics can all be engraved by dot matrix.

(2) Vector cutting: Different from dot matrix engraving, vector cutting is performed on the outer contour of the graphic. We usually use this mode for penetrating cutting on wood, acrylic, paper and other materials, as well as marking on the surface of a variety of materials.

(3) Engraving speed: Engraving speed refers to the speed at which the laser head moves in IPS (inches per second). High speed achieves high production efficiency. Speed is also used to control the depth of cut. For a specific laser intensity, the slower the speed, the greater the depth of cutting or engraving. You can use the laser engraving machine panel to adjust the speed, or use the computer's print driver. The adjustment rate is 1% within the range of 1% to 100%.

(4) Engraving intensity: Engraving intensity is the intensity of the laser shooting the surface of the material. For a specific engraving speed, the greater the intensity, the greater the depth of cutting or engraving. You can use the laser engraving machine panel to adjust the intensity, or use the computer's print driver. The adjustment rate is 1% within the range of 1% to 100%. The greater the intensity, the greater the speed, and the deeper the cutting depth of the laser engraving machine.

(5) Spot size: The size of the laser beam spot can be adjusted by lenses with different focal lengths. The lens with a small spot is used for high-resolution engraving, while the lens with a large spot is used for low-resolution engraving.

(6) Engraving materials: Wood products, organic glass, metal plate, glass, stone, crystal, Corian, paper, two-color plate, alumina, leather, resin, spray metal.

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